SOCIETIAL ACCEPTANCE OF GROUND-SOURCE HEAT INNOVATIONS FOR RURAL MĀORI COMMUNITIES WITH THE EXAMPLE OF NGATI RANGIWEWEHI
Gina Mohi, Paul White and Diane Bradshaw
Ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) are an established technology, capable of delivering efficient heating and cooling utilising the immense renewable energy stored in the ground, ground water or surface water. They are being recognised as an alternative to fossil fuel systems and can offer significant reductions in the overall CO2 emissions. GNS Science Māori Strategy seeks to identify the opportunities of GSHP technologies as a consideration for housing or marae development.
This technology has much to offer communities, particularly in rural areas because resource use is relatively benign. Also, this technology has much to offer Māori and the important rural marae that fulfill a crucial role in New Zealand communities.
In this paper, we describe a comprehensive framework for ground-source heat pump technologies in rural Māori communities aiming at societal acceptance of resource use and the technology associated with ground-source heat pumps. For these communities, resource utilisation must be consistent with long-term Māori custodial responsibilities. The framework is developed and tested with Ngati Rangiwewehi and the Awahou Marae on the shores of Lake Rotorua.
Nga Kura Huna Conference2016, joint presentation
KA TU TE TANIWHA - KA ORA TE TANGATA
IMPROVING OUR UNDERSTANDING OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES IN THE AWAHOU CATCHMENT
Abigail Lovett (GNS Science) and Gina Mohi (Ngati NgatiRangiwewehi)
Glossary of Ngati Rangiwewehi terms
Te Awahou; Awahou Village – A rural lake-side settlement located on the north-western shores of Lake Rotorua from the Waimihia stream to Puhirua urupa, and extending north-west to take in Taniwha Springs and surrounding lands, the majority of which are Maori freehold and Maori Reserves. The majority of the residents within the village defines are of Ngati Rangiwewehi decent who maintain ‘Ahi Ka’ and have an unbroken relationship with their traditional landholdings, and affiliate to Tarimano Marae located in the heart of Awahou.
He Take Tupuna; a legacy handed down from ones ancestors (from one generation to another)
Kaumatua/Koeke; an elder or elders of Ngati Rangiwewehi
Nga Pumanawa e Waru o Te Arawa: The eight beating hearts of Rangitihi, a reference to Rangitihi who was the fifth generation descendant of Tamatekapua, whose descendants make up the confederated Te Arawa tribes residing in the Rotorua and Rotoiti regions.
Nga Puna-wai o te Rotorua-nui-a-Kahumatamomoe: Identified spring-fed tributaries and waterways located along the north-western margins of Lake Rotorua over which Ngati Rangiwewehi maintains and exerts customary authority.
Ngati Rangiwewehi: one of the acknowledged iwi of Te Arawa and so named after their eponymous ancestor Rangiwewehi whose father was the eldest child of Whakauekaipapa, a seventh generation descendent of Tamatekapua, the captain of the Te Arawa canoe. The tribe has lived and co-habitated within the Mangorewa-Kaharoa area since the time of Whakauekaipapa and today their main habitation is the village of Te Awahou along the banks of the Awahou stream.
- Ngati Kereru; a hapu of Ngati Rangiwewehi.
- Ngati Ngata; a hapu of Ngati Rangiwewehi.
- Ngati Te Purei; a hapu of Ngati Rangiwewehi.
- Ngati Rehu; a hapu of Ngati Rangiwewehi.
- Ngati Tawake; a hapu of Ngati Rangiwewehi.
- Ngati Whakakeu; a hapu of Ngati Rangiwewehi.
- Ngati Whakaokorau; a hapu of Ngati Rangiwewehi.
Pekehaua; The legendary taniwha of old, kaitiaki of the springs that were named for him, and the waters that make up the Awahou Stream. Also considered as the spiritual protector of the people of Ngati Rangiwewehi.
Pekehaua Puna Reserve: The land containing what is historically known as Taniwha Springs, and from which 1 acre was taken from Ngati Rangiwewehi in 1966 by the then Rotorua County Council for municipal water supply purposes via the Public Works Act,
Puhirua Urupa; a private cemetery, the final resting place for Ngati Rangiwewehi deceased who have returned to lie in state at Tarimano Marae.
Tangata Whenua; People of the land, which signifies the relationships through Take Tupuna, Take Tupuna and Ahi Ka, that Ngati Rangiwewehi have to their traditional rohe.
Taniwha Springs: comprised of a collection of natural cold water springs and seeps, the main contributor to the Awahou Stream, and are known to Ngati Rangiwewehi as Te Puna o Pekehaua. The springs are central to the identity of Rangiwewehi, and is acknowledged as the home of the taniwha Pekehaua. The site was first developed as a tourism venture in 1912, however major development of the site did not occur until 1958 and continued until 1966, when the main spring ‘Te Waro Uri’ was taken by the Rotorua County Council for public water supply. The commercial entity went into decline and control the land was finally returned to the Iwi in 1993 when the lease expired.
Tarimano Marae; the ancestral marae of Ngati Rangiwewehi located in the heart of the Awahou Village. The marae is situated on the southern bank of the lower reaches of the Awahou Stream.
Tarimano Kohanga Reo; Located on Tarimano Marae, this language-based pre-school is dedicated to the revitalisation and perpetuation of Te Reo Maori me ona tikanga (the Maori language and associated protocols) with a specific focus on the retention of the customs, practices and protocols unique to Ngati Rangiwewehi
Te Maru o Ngati Rangiwewehi; (Ngati Rangiwewehi Iwi Authority) The mandated representative body for the people of Ngati Rangiwewehi. ‘Te Maru’ is a non-statutory entity established at a hui-a Iwi (gathering of iwi members) in 2000 held at Tarimano Marae, Awahou.
Te Rotorua-nui-a-Kahu; The Second Great Lake of Kahumatamomoe the original name of Lake Rotorua; which was named after the second eldest son of Tamatekapua.
Te Wai Mimi o Pekehaua; name given to the Te Awahou river in reference to the connection to the taniwha Pekehaua.
Te Waro Uri; “The Dark Chasm” the legendary underwater lair of the taniwha Pekehaua. In 1966 an acre of land surrounding the spring known as Te Waro Uri was taken by the Rotorua County Council via the Public Works Act for public water supply. The negative impact this aggressive action had on the well-being of the people of Ngati Reangiwewehi was significant and long-lasting, and was only resolved when the confiscated acre was returned to Ngati Rangiwewehi by the Rotorua City Council in 2016 in recognition of the historical wrong-doings of their predecessors, in the spirt of reconciliation and good-will.